January/February 2019: Aquatics & Black Health
SPOTLIGHT ON AQUATICS & BLACK HEALTH
RECENT PUBLICATIONS: STUDIES, SYSTEMATIC REVIEWS, AND META-ANALYSIS
Content courtesy of the National Swimming Pool Foundation
In part because it levels the playing field for therapy and exercise, today’s aquatic professionals tend to think of the pool as the great equalizer. But too many people still miss out on the chance to take full advantage of the health benefits of swimming, aquatic fitness, and aquatic sports. In 2017, the USA Swimming Foundation published a study reporting that 64.2% of black adults claimed little to no swimming skills, compared to fewer than 40% of white adults. Because a lack of water competence perpetuates itself from one generation to the next, confronting these figures is vital to the health of our communities. Since the factors contributing to this troubling disparity vary tremendously, this month’s spotlight attempts to survey some recent work in, around, and beyond this issue. The studies in the Spotlight section below serve as an admittedly partial introduction to important concerns for black lives in aquatics.
Anderson, S. (2017). A health disparity: Perceived ecological system factors of African American aquatic professionals that impact African American participation in water safety awareness, education and aquatic programing. University of Maryland Eastern Shore. Retrieved from https://scholarworks.bgsu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1444&context=ijare
Anne, M., & Franklin, R. C. (2015). Exploring the Delivery of Swimming and Water Safety Teacher Training to Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Communities. International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education, 9(3), 3. http://doi.org/10.25035/ijare.09.03.03
Banks, T. L. (2014). Still Drowning in Segregation: Limits of Law in Post-Civil Rights America. Law and Inequality: A Journal of Theory and Practice, 32.
Beale-Tawfeeq, A., Anderson, A., & Ramos, W. (2018). A Cause to Action: Learning to Develop a Culturally Responsive/Relevant Approach to 21st Century Water Safety Messaging through Collaborative Partnerships. International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education, 11(1). http://doi.org/10.25035/ijare.11.01.08
Berg, B. K., Irwin, C. C., Wright, P. M., Irwin, R. L., & Hutchinson, M. (2016). An unacceptable status quo: A sport development case study of swimming and drownings. Sport Management Review, 19(4), 454–465. http://doi.org/10.1016/J.SMR.2015.11.002
Berukoff, K. D., & Hill, G. M. (2010). A Study of Factors That Influence the Swimming Performance of Hispanic High School Students. International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education, 4(4). http://doi.org/10.25035/ijare.04.04.07
Dawson, K. (2018). Parting the Waters of Bondage: African Americans’ Aquatic Heritage. International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education, 11(1). http://doi.org/10.25035/ijare.11.01.09
Felton, H., Myers, J., Liu, G., open, D. D.-B., & 2015, undefined. (n.d.). Unintentional, non-fatal drowning of children: US trends and racial/ethnic disparities. Bmjopen.Bmj.Com. Retrieved from http://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/5/12/e008444?utm_source=trendmd&utm_medium=cpc&utm_campaign=alljjs&utm_content=americas&utm_term=1-B
Felton, H., Myers, J., Liu, G., & Davis, D. W. (2015). Unintentional, non-fatal drowning of children: US trends and racial/ethnic disparities. BMJ Open, 5(12), e008444. http://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2015-008444
Fogan, D. (2014). An assessment of barriers that impact the swimming abilities of young African Americans attending a southeastern Historically Black College and University (HBCU). Howard University.
Gilchrist, J., Parker, E. M., & Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2014). Racial/ethnic disparities in fatal unintentional drowning among persons aged ≤ 29 years – United States, 1999-2010. MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 63(19), 421–6. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24827409
Glassman, T. J., Castor, T., Karmakar, M., Blavos, A., Dagenhard, P., Domigan, J., … Kucharewski, R. (2018). A Social Marketing Intervention to Prevent Drowning Among Inner-City Youth. Health Promotion Practice, 19(2), 175–183. http://doi.org/10.1177/1524839917732559
Golob, M. I., Giles, A. R., & Rich, K. M. (2013). Enhancing the Relevance and Effectiveness of Water Safety Education for Ethnic and Racial Minorities. International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education, 7(1). http://doi.org/10.25035/ijare.07.01.05
Gorsuch, M. M., Jr., S. L. M., Lai, Y., Steward, D., & Motachwa, R. (2018). Vanishing racial disparities in drowning in Florida. Injury Prevention, injuryprev-2018-042872. http://doi.org/10.1136/INJURYPREV-2018-042872
Hastings, D. W., Zahran, S., & Cable, S. (2006). Drowning in Inequalities. Journal of Black Studies, 36(6), 894–917. http://doi.org/10.1177/0021934705283903
Higgerson, J., Halliday, E., Ortiz-Nunez, A., & Barr, B. (2018). The impact of free access to swimming pools on children’s participation in swimming. A comparative regression discontinuity study. Journal of Public Health. http://doi.org/10.1093/pubmed/fdy079
Irwin, C. C., Irwin, R. L., Ryan, T. D., & Drayer, J. (2009). Urban minority youth swimming (in)ability in the United States and associated demographic characteristics: toward a drowning prevention plan. Injury Prevention : Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention, 15(4), 234–9. http://doi.org/10.1136/ip.2008.020461
Irwin, C. C., Layne, T. E., Irwin, R. L., & Pharr, J. (2018). Factors Impacting Swimming Participation and Competence. RESEARCH QUARTERLY FOR EXERCISE AND SPORT, 89, A130-131.
Irwin, C. C., Irwin, R. L., Ryan, T. D., & Drayer, J. (2011). The Legacy of Fear: Is Fear Impacting Fatal and Non-Fatal Drowning of African American Children? Journal of Black Studies, 42(4), 561–576. http://doi.org/10.1177/0021934710385549
Irwin, C. C., Pharr, J. R., Irwin, R. L., & Layne, T. E. (2018). Youth Swimming Ability and Associated Factors in the United States, 2010-17. American Journal of Health Behavior, 42(5), 32–42. http://doi.org/10.5993/AJHB.42.5.3
Irwin, C., Irwin, R., Ryan, T., & Drayer, J. (2009). The Mythology of Swimming: Are Myths Impacting Minority Youth Participation? International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education, 3, 10–23. Retrieved from https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2457154
Irwin, J., O’Callaghan, F., & Glendon, A. I. (2018). Predicting Parental Intentions to Enrol Their Children in Swimming Lessons Using an Extended Theory of Planned Behaviour. Australian Psychologist, 53(3), 263–270. http://doi.org/10.1111/ap.12303
Ito, G. H. (2014). Barriers to Swimming and Water Safety Education for African Americans. International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education, 8(3), 240–257. http://doi.org/10.25035/ijare.08.03.04
Jensen, J. R. (2018). Assessing College Student Student Perceptions of Participation in Swimmin as a Physical Activity. Graduate College of Hampton University. Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com/openview/d12228dc7fbdbd851e74feb907b9a7d2/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=18750&diss=y
Langendorfer, S. (2019). Revised Scientific Review: Minimum Age for Swim Lessons. International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education, 10(4).
Lawson, K. A., Duzinski, S. V., Wheeler, T., Yuma-Guerrero, P. J., Johnson, K. M. K., Maxson, R. T., & Schlechter, R. (2012). Teaching Safety at a Summer Camp: Evaluation of a Water Safety Curriculum in an Urban Community Setting. Health Promotion Practice, 13(6), 835–841. http://doi.org/10.1177/1524839911399428
Long, J., Dashper, K., Fletcher, T., & Ormerod, N. (2015). Understanding participation and non-participation in sport amongst Black and minority ethnic groups in Wales. Retrieved from http://eprints.leedsbeckett.ac.uk/1725/
Myers, S. L., Cuesta, A., & Lai, Y. (2017). Competitive Swimming and Racial Disparities in Drowning. The Review of Black Political Economy, 44(1–2), 77–97. http://doi.org/10.1007/s12114-017-9248-y
Norwood, D. (2018). Conflicted: An Autoethnography on Researching the Minority Swimming Gap. International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education, 11(1). http://doi.org/10.25035/ijare.11.01.04
Olaisen, R. H., Flocke, S., & Love, T. (2018). Learning to swim: role of gender, age and practice in Latino children, ages 3-14. Injury Prevention : Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention, 24(2), 129–134. http://doi.org/10.1136/injuryprev-2016-042171
Pharr, J. R., Irwin, C. ;, & Irwin, R. (2014). Parental Factors That Influence Swimming in Children and Adolescents. International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education, 8(4), 11–12. http://doi.org/10.25035/ijare.08.04.07
Pharr, J., Irwin, C., Layne, T., Irwin, R., Pharr, J., Irwin, C., … Irwin, R. (2018). Predictors of Swimming Ability among Children and Adolescents in the United States. Sports, 6(1), 17. http://doi.org/10.3390/sports6010017
Pitts, L. (2007). History lessons: A look back at the history of Blacks and swimming reveals the roots of a persistent minority drowning issue that’s sometimes perpetuated by Blacks themselves. Aquatics International, 42–49.
Quan, L. (2014). Risk Factors for Drowning: Culture and Ethnicity. In Drowning (pp. 127–130). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg. http://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-04253-9_19
Quan, L., Ramos, W., Harvey, C., Kublick, L., & Langendorfer, S. (2015). Toward Defining Water Competency: An American Red Cross Definition. International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education, 9(1), 2–3. http://doi.org/10.25035/ijare.09.01.03
Ramos, W. D., & Anderson, A. R. (2017). A Reasoned Action Approach Assessment of Instructional Youth Swim Safety Messaging. International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education, 10(2). http://doi.org/10.25035/ijare.10.02.07
Ries, A. V., Gittelsohn, J., Voorhees, C. C., Roche, K. M., Clifton, K. J., & Astone, N. M. (2008). The Environment and Urban Adolescents’ Use of Recreational Facilities for Physical Activity: A Qualitative Study. American Journal of Health Promotion, 23(1), 43–50. http://doi.org/10.4278/ajhp.07043042
Russell, W. D. (2014). The relationship between youth sport specialization, reasons for participation, and youth sport participation motivations: A retrospective study. Journal of Sport Behavior, 37(3), 286–305.
Sabo, D., & Veliz, P. (2016). Inequalities in Athletic Participation During Adolescence: A Nationwide Study of Attrition Rates in Organized Sports in the United States. Health Behavior and Policy Review, 3(2), 88–98. http://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.3.2.1
Sally, R., Irwin, C. C., Irwin, R. L., Martin, N. T., & Ryan, T. D. (2014). The Development of Swimming Skills for African American Youth: Parent and Caregiver Perceptions of Barriers and Motivations. International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education, 8(3), 3. http://doi.org/10.25035/ijare.08.03.03
Sato, T., Ellison, D. W., & Eckert, K. (2018). African American pre-service physical education teachers’ learning about aquatic courses. European Physical Education Review, 1356336X1877476. http://doi.org/10.1177/1356336X18774760
Shenoi, R. P., Levine, N., Jones, J. L., Frost, M. H., Koerner, C. E., & Fraser, J. J. (2015). Spatial analysis of paediatric swimming pool submersions by housing type. Injury Prevention : Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention, 21(4), 245–53. http://doi.org/10.1136/injuryprev-2014-041397
Stallman, R. K., Moran, K., Quan, L., & Langendorfer, S. (2017). From Swimming Skill to Water Competence: Towards a More Inclusive Drowning Prevention Future. International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education, 10(2). http://doi.org/10.25035/ijare.10.02.03
Stodolska, M., Sharaievska, I., Tainsky, S., & Ryan, A. (2014). Minority Youth Participation in an Organized Sport Program. Journal of Leisure Research, 46(5), 612–634. http://doi.org/10.1080/00222216.2014.11950345
Storm, M. K., Williams, K. N., Shetter, E. M., Kaminsky, J., Lowery, C. M., Caldas, S. V., … Winch, P. J. (2017). Sink or Swim: Promoting Youth Development Through Aquatics Programs in Baltimore, Maryland. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 35(1), 66–79. http://doi.org/10.18666/JPRA-2017-V35-I1-7295
USA Swimming (2017). 2017 Membership Demographic Report. Colorado Springs, CO.
Waller, S., & Bemiller, J. (2018). Navigating Rough Waters: Public Swimming Pools, Discrimination, and the Law. International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education, 11(1). http://doi.org/10.25035/ijare.11.01.10
Waller, S., & Norwood, D. M. (2011). What African Americans Can Do to Bridge the Swimming Gap: A Call to Action. International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education, 5(4), 10.
Wallis, B. A., Watt, K., Franklin, R. C., Taylor, M., Nixon, J. W., & Kimble, R. M. (2015). Interventions associated with drowning prevention in children and adolescents: systematic literature review. Injury Prevention, 21(3), 195–204. http://doi.org/10.1136/INJURYPREV-2014-041216
Wiltse, J. (2014). The Black–White Swimming Disparity in America. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 38(4), 366–389. http://doi.org/10.1177/0193723513520553
Wiltse, J. (2007). Contested Waters: a Social History of Swimming Pools in America. University of North Carolina Press.
Wolfrom, D., Murray, E., & Dominguez, A. (2018). Modeling Initial Participation of Diverse Communities in Competitive Swimming. International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education, 11(1). http://doi.org/10.25035/ijare.11.01.07